The pituitary gland in the brain produces growth hormone, a peptide hormone. It’s also known as “growth hormone,” “human growth hormone,” “somatotropic hormone,” and “somatotropin” (STH) or wachstumshormone. The hormone is especially vital for cell proliferation and differentiation in the childhood and teenage years. The fact that STH-producing cells account for 40% of the cells in the pituitary gland demonstrates its relevance. Whatever you need to know concerning growth hormone is right here!
What else are growth hormones, and how do they work?
Growth hormones are peptides hormones generated in the anterior pituitary gland’s inoculation cells. Their production is regulated by two hormones produced by another part of the brain (hypothalamus):
- Somatoliberin (somatotropin-releasing factor), a hypothalamic hormone, guarantees that the pituitary gland body releases more growth hormone.
- On the other hand, the hypothalamic hormone somatostatin inhibits growth hormone release.
The release of somatoliberin and somatostatin, and consequently the release of growth hormone, is influenced by several circumstances.
STH secretion in a day-night cycle GH is secreted mostly at night, during the deep stages of sleep. Somatotropin secretion varies during the day, depending on various variables, including indirectly via somatoliberin and somatostatin.
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), thyroid hormones, estrogens, dopamine, endorphins (“happy hormones”), and stress, for instance, can stimulate growth hormone secretion. Excess blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and blood fat levels (hyperlipidemia), progestins, adrenaline, excessive weight, and cold, on the other hand, might inhibit STH production from the pituitary gland.
What are the functions of growth hormones?
The following are the primary impacts of growth hormone:
- Following birth and in adolescence, the longitudinal expansion of the bones is aided.
- Muscle and soft tissue development are encouraged (by boosting protein synthesis)
- Fat loss promotion for energy supply
- A rise in blood sugar levels is accompanied by an increase in insulin secretion (and thereby a temporary decrease in the blood sugar level)
- It promotes the production of calcitriol (essential for the mineralization of the bones)
- Support for the immune system (via the movement of T lymphocytes and macrophages)
What diseases are affected by growth hormones?
A growth hormone deficit can occur if the pituitary gland is damaged. It can be passed down through families (for example, through another disease, an injury, or radiation). In children, a lack of growth hormone causes them to grow shorter. Other abnormalities may emerge if the deficit only appears in maturity after the length increase has been finished. The fat stored in the belly, for example, might increase, blood lipid values can rise, and overall well-being can be compromised.
It’s also possible to have too much growth hormone. A benign tumor of the pituitary gland (pituitary adenoma), for example, might cause it by stimulating GH generation. Somatotropin excess causes gigantism in infants (gigantism).
In adults, however, a high quantity of growth hormone causes acromegaly, defined by the enlargement of projecting areas of the body (such as the hands, feet, nose, and ears, among several other things).
Laron’s syndrome is an uncommon inherited condition linked to low height and other symptoms. Due to a genetic alteration, those impacted are susceptible to growth hormone (gene mutation).